Ultrasound Study of Atherosclerotic Changes in Carotid Vessels and Role of Certain Factors which Increase the Incidence of Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is supposed to be causing number of deaths due to coronary artery stenosis and major inability in the shape of hemipleagias involving carotid arteries, which is called stroke or vascular accident. In this study, evaluation of the factors causing increased incidence of carotid artery atherosclerosis is done. Ultrasound has unique capability to visualise vessel wall in vivo. This important arterial pathophysiolgy detected with B-mode sonography is arthrosclerosis and plaque formation. Atherosclerotic plaque is represented sonographically by echogenic material that thickens the intimal reflection and encroaches onto the arterial lumen and produces flow void. The study was carried out with 375 patients who were attending the medical, surgical and diabetic departments of Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal for attributable neurological signs. All the cases were examined with SIEMENS SONOLINE G-50 ultrasound machine using the 7.5-10 MHz linear array transducer. All examinations are done with the Doppler angle of 60 degree and sample volume of 1-5 mm[2,5]. All four vessels, i.e., common carotid, internal carotid, external carotid and vertebral arteries of both sides are evaluated both longitudinally and transversely.
Following parameters are observed on both real time and frozen images. Intima-media thickness, patent lumen diameter, residual lumen diameter, dimensions of the plaque, peak systolic velocity, systolic velocity ratio (carotid index), diastolic velocity ratio and ercentage of diameter stenosis.
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