Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal en-US Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2347-6192 Foetal Ultrasound– A Study of Spina Bifida and Associated Anomalies in Rural Pregnant Women http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/284 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the incidence and various types of associated anomalies and complications on obstetric ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these congenital neuroectodermal anomalies. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. A prospective and retrospective study of spina bifida and its associated anomalies was done on 23,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. A total of 19 cases spina bifida were detected of which 2 cases were pure spina bifida without any complication, 14 cases had hydrocephalus and meningocele or myelomeningocele and 2 cases had meningocele without hydrocephalus. One case had anencephaly with an incidence of 1 per 1,111 cases. History of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets were noted. Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of these neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real-time image visualization makes it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterization of these anomalies.</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Congenital neuroectodermal anomalies, Spina bifida, Hydrocephalus, Meningocele, Myelomeningocele, Ultrasound, Anencephaly</p> Ramanappa M V Janardhan Reddy K Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Study of Prevalence of Koilocytes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/285 <p>Ever since Dr. Harald zur Hausen won the noble prize in medicine in 2008 for discovering human papilloma virus (HPV) as the etiological factor for cervical cancer, the research has been robust in this field. More recent data from case–control studies and systematic review indicate that HPV is an independent risk factor for oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 90% of all malignant tumours that affect the oral cavity. The most known viral cytopathic effect is koilocytosis, considered to be a major characteristic of HPV infection. Koilocytes are epithelial cells characterised by perinuclear haloes surrounding condensed nuclei and is accepted as pathognomonic (characteristic of a particular disease) of HPV infection. Aim: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of koilocytes in OSCCs. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 60 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that were obtained from patients with a histopathological diagnosis of OSCC. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were submitted to examine under light microscopy, specifically for the determination of the presence of koilocytes and were analysed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the presence of koilocytes is reliable for the detection of HPV presence in routine histopathology in OSCCs.</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Oral cancer, HPV, DNA Virus, Oral carcinogenesis</p> Smitha T C V Mohan Hemavathy S Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Comparative Evaluation of Presence of Butterfly Effect in Transverse Sections of Incisors, Canines and Premolars – An In-Vitro Study http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/286 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To compare the occurrence of the butterfly effect in the roots of incisors, canines and premolars. Materials and</p><p><strong>methodology:</strong> A total of 30 extracted teeth were selected (incisors, canines and premolars of 10 each) and embedded in the clear acrylic and then sectioned into six thin sections of 1-mm thickness and are observed under light microscope at 5× magnification. Scoring was given on the presence or absence of the butterfly effect. </p><p>R<strong>esults:</strong> 80% of the incisor and canine groups showed the presence of butterfly effect, whereas it is 70% in case of premolar group. Conclusion: No significance difference in presence of butterfly effect in incisors, canines and premolars, with very slight predominance in incisors and canines. If present, this was uniform all along the root.</p><p><br /><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Butterfly effect, Dentinal tubules, Vertical fractures, Density ,sensitivity, intertubular dentin, instrumentation</p> Rama Rao M S V.S.S.K Sekhar Kiran Kumar Ch Tejasree Rathod R Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Anthropometric Evaluation of Facial Dimensions in Population of Western Maharashtra http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/287 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was carried out to evaluate an average ratio between specific soft tissue parameters of the face among the young adult population of Karad, Maharashtra. The soft tissue parameters gauged in the present study are inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, alar base width and distance between the corners of the mouth. <strong>Rationale:</strong> The average ratio of soft tissue parameters of the face can act as a guideline for effective treatment of teeth and dento facial structures as well as soft tissue outlines. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 1,786 young adults aged between 18 and 20 years from Karad city were initially screened, out of which 1,000 were selected on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The fronto-facial photographs of the selected subjects were captured using a digital camera. The selected facial soft tissue parameters were digitally measured, and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. <strong>Result:</strong> The values of the parameters measured were marginally more in males; however, the ratio among the parameters was similar in both the sexes. The average ratio between the inner canthal distance, alar base width and distance between corners of the mouth was found to be <strong>1:1.3:1.7,</strong> and the average ratio etween the outer canthal distance, alar base width and distance between the corners of the mouth was found to be <strong>2.3:1:1.3</strong>. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The different parts of the human face exist in certain proportions. Establishing the ratio between these parameters is important to facilitate proper diagnosis and treatment planning for the specific population.</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Facial measurements, Golden proportions, Digital photography</p> Sneha Singh Sandesh Phaphe Chanamallappa Ganiger Renuka Pawar Yusuf Ahammed A R Pratap Mane Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Comparative Evaluation of the Bleaching Efficacy of 16% Carbamide Peroxide and 30% Hydrogen Peroxide – An In-vitro Study http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/288 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the bleaching efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide, 30%hydrogen peroxide for intracoronal bleaching of root filled discoloured tooth.</p><p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Extracted teeth were artificially stained using human blood then centrifuged under 3,200 rpm speed for 30 min thrice daily for a period of 2 days to enhance penetration of the haemolysed red blood cells into the dentinal tubules. The precipitate was removed, and the teeth were immersed in the remaining haemoglobin-rich haemolysate for further 2 days, centrifuging it thrice daily for 30 min. The resultant discoloured teeth were then washed in distilled water. Root canal treatment was performed. After obturation, a 2-mm intermediate base of Intermediate restorative material IRM was placed to 1-mm apical to the cementoenamel junction. Teeth were divided into three groups with 10 teeth per group. Intracoronal bleaching was performed using either 35% carbamide peroxide gel (group CP) in one group, 35% hydrogen peroxide gel (group HP) in another group and distilled water in the control group as the third group. The bleaching agents were replaced after 5 days. The shade of the teeth was evaluated at day 0, 5 and 10 using VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Sa¨ckingen, Germany) shade guide. The results were analysed using Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U-test.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> When superoxol and control group are compared, there shows a clear difference of significance between these two materials. But when superoxol and carbamide peroxide are compared, there is no difference of significance. Both superoxol and carbamide peroxide showed same results. Both are effective bleaching agents.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In our study we noticed that 16% carbamide peroxide and 30% hydrogen peroxide are equally effective in the treatment of intracoronal bleaching which we observed in a 5,10,15 days of regular intervals</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Carbamide peroxide, Drug effects, Hydrogen peroxide, Tooth bleaching, Tooth discolouration, Haemoglobin-rich Haemolysate, Root canal filled tooth</p> Rama Rao M S Tejasree Rathod V.S.S.K Sekhar Kiran Kumar Ch Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Paediatric Dentist: The Difference Maker for Children Suffering from Speech and Language Delay http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/289 <p>Child’s overall development and cognitive ability depend on the speech and language development. A speech and language delay is usually associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention and socialisation. The knowledge of delay in the speech and language development may help in intervention and assistance to the child at a young age, when the chances of improving the developments are more acceptable. This includes a variety of tests for the child, which needs to be integrated with the routine clinical practice to improve and help the child to overcome the developmental delay of language and speech. The paediatric dentist can play a vital role in this development by his/her skill all of which is aimed to the well-being of the child. This review highlights on the treatment integrations of paediatric dentists, which can help the child suffering from speech and language delay.</p><p><br /><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Early intervention, Identification, Language delay, Paediatric dentist, Speech, Language, Clinical practice</p> Bhagyashree Thakur Ajinkya M. Pawar Pankaj Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Bilateral Mandibular Centrals with Rare Type IV Canals http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/290 <p>The aim of this study was to report the endodontic management of maxillary incisors having two canals with rare type IV vertucci canal configuration. Internal morphology of root canals is variable and often complex. Therefore, to achieve a technically satisfactory endodontic outcome, the clinician must have an adequate knowledge of the internal canal morphology and its variations to debride and obturate the root canal system thoroughly. This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of both the mandibular central incisors having two-root canals in same individual.</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Mandibular incisors, Canal configuration, Type IV canals, Vertucci classification, Vanal morphology, Two canals, Rare type</p> Rama Rao M S Kiran Kumar Ch Tejasri Rathod R V.S.S.K Sekhar Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2 Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report with Review of Literature http://ijomdas.com/index.php/journal/article/view/291 <p>Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequently occurring skin cancer. Most cases are not life threatening, as very small proportions of BCCs metastasise. However, a high tendency to recurrence makes characterising BCCs and tumour margin areas obligatory. It will assist in better understanding their pathogenesis and in more effective treatment through prevention of recurrence and second primary disease.Various morphological subtypes have been described, nodular BCC being the most common type. Morpheaform or sclerosing BCC is a rare but high risk variant of BCC. One such case of Morpheaform, BCC in a 30-year old female patient is reported here to emphasise the nature and early diagnosis of this malignancy.</p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Basal cell carcinoma, Infiltrative, Morpheaform BCC, Skincancer, Malignancy, Ulcer, Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome</p> Mrinal Shete Anagha Shete Pratibha Singh Shrikant Sonune Deepak Kumar Nagpal Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences 2016-12-07 2016-12-07 4 2